The Wool Modern exhibition at La Galleria on Pall Mall in central London is the highlight of this year's Wool Week, which is part of the Campaign for Wool launched by Charles in 2010.
Camilla wore a woollen dress designed by Anna Valentine and actor Colin Firth and his wife, Livia Firth, turned out to show their support.
The campaign aims to raise the profile of wool as a versatile, natural fibre and help revive British sheep farming.
Renowned figures from the fashion and design industries were invited to the exhibition to view the best of wool in carpets, insulation products and fashion pieces.
Items from designers Alexander McQueen and Vivienne Westwood took centre stage.
Charles said: "When you start something like this you wonder if anyone is going to respond at all, so the fact that there has been such a positive response is enormously encouraging.
"When we launched the campaign for wool it was in an unbelievably cold barn in January. It did actually require a great deal of wool to survive.
"When we first discussed this campaign it appeared that wool had been forgotten. It was being ignored in favour of fabrics made from non-renewable fossil fuels.
"Wool leaves a lighter footprint on the planet compared to man-made products and when you consider how long it lasts it represents fantastic value."